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Wildflower Checklist

Printer Friendly Wildflower Checklist (PDF)

KEY
  * Abundance
  * c = Common—characteristic and dominant
  * f = Frequent—generally encountered
  * o = Occasional—well distributed, but nowhere abundant
  * i = Infrequent—scattered locales throughout park
  * s = Scarce—several locales or scattered small populations
  * r = Rare—l or 2 locales, small populations
  * vr = Very rare—single locale, few individuals
  * h = Historic—documented in Park’s flora, but not seen for at least 50 years
  * x = Believed extirpated, or not seen for at least 50 years

  * Range
  * lo = Low elevations—850’-2,500’
  * mid = Middle elevations—2,500’-4,500’
  * hi = High elevations—4,500’-6,600’
  * wr = Wide range of elevations
  * hs = Found near old homesites

  * unk = Status unknown
  * *Non-native species

    FERN AND FERN ALLIES

  * ADIANTACAE
  * Adiantum pedatum Northern maiden-hair fern f, lo-mid
  * Pellaea atropurpurea Purple cliff-brake r, lo

  * DRYOPTERIDACEAE
  * Cystopteris protrusa Lowland brittle fern f, wr
  * Dryopteris intermedia Intermediate wood fern c, wr
  * Polystichum acrostichoides Christmas fern c, wr

  * LYCOPODIACEAE
  * Huperzia lucidula Shining clubmoss f, wr

  * OPHIOGLOSSACEAE
  * Ophioglossum vulgatum Southeastern Adder’s-tongue s, lo

  * OSMUNDACEAE
  * Osmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon fern f, wr

    GYMNOSPERMS

  * CUPRESSACEAE
  * Juniperus virginiana Red cedar o, lo

  * PINACEAE
  * Abies fraseri Fraser fir c, hi
  * Picea rubens Red spruce f, hi
  * Pinus echinata Short-leaf pine o, lo-mid
  * Pinus pungens Table Mountain pine o, mid
  * Pinus rigida Pitch pine c, lo-mid
  * Pinus strobus White pine f, lo-mid
  * Pinus taeda Loblolly pine r, lo
  * Pinus virginiana Virginia or scrub pine c, lo-mid
  * Tsuga canadensis Eastern hemlock f, wr

    ANGIOSPERMS—MONOCOTYLEDONEAE

  * ARACEAE
  * Arisaema dracontium Green dragon r, lo
  * Arisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the-pulpit c, wr

  * COMMELINACEAE
  * *Commelina communis Common dayflower o, lo
  * Tradescantia subaspera var. montana Mountain spiderwort f, lo-mid

  * CYPERACEAE
  * Carex plantaginea Plantain-leaved sedge f, wr
  * Cymophyllus fraserianus Fraser’s sedge o, lo-mid

  * IRIDACEAE
  * Iris cristata Crested dwarf iris f, lo-mid
  * Iris verna var. smalliana Spring dwarf iris s, lo
  * Sisyrinchium angustifolium Blue-eyed grass i, lo

  * LILIACEAE
  * Amianthium muscitoxicum Fly poison i, hi
  * Chamaelirium luteum Fairy wand i, lo-mid
  * Clintonia umbellulata Umbellate clintonia, speckled wood lily o, mid
  * *Convallaria majalis Lily-of-the-valley r, lo-mid
  * Convallaria montana Wild lily-of-the-valley s, mid
  * Disporum lanuginosum Yellow mandarin f, lo-mid
  * Erythronium umbilicatum Trout-lily c, wr
  * Hypoxis hirsuta Yellow star grass c, lo-mid
  * Maianthemum canadense Canada mayflower o, mid
  * Maianthemum racemosum False Solomon’s seal c, wr
  * Medeola virginiana Indian cucumber f, wr
  * Polygonatum biflorum var. biflorum Smooth Solomon’s seal f, lo-mid
  * Streptopus roseus Rose twisted-stalk o, mid-hi
  * Trillium catesbaei Catesby’s trillium f, lo-mid
  * Trillium erectum Wake robin f, wr
  * Trillium grandiflorum White trillium f, lo-mid
  * Trillium luteum Yellow trillium f, lo
  * Trillium simile Sweet white trillium r, mid
  * Trillium undulatum Painted trillium o, wr
  * Trillium vaseyi Vasey’s trillium o, lo-mid
  * Uvularia grandiflora Large-flowered bellwort o, lo-mid
  * Uvularia puberula Mountain bellwort f, lo-mid
  * Veratrum viride False hellebore f, hi

  * ORCHIDACEAE
  * Aplectrum hyemale Adam-and-Eve orchid f, lo-mid
  * Cleistes divaricata Spreading pogonia s, lo-mid
  * Cypripedium acaule Pink lady’s slipper o, lo-mid
  * Cypripedium pubescens Yellow lady’s slipper s, lo-mid
  * Galearis spectabilis Showy orchis f, lo-mid
  * Liparis liliifolia Lily-leaved twayblade i, lo

  * SMILACACEAE
  * Smilax hugeri Huger’s carrion flower r, lo

    ANGIOSPERMS—DICOTYLEDONEAE

  * ACANTHACEAE
  * Ruellia caroliniensis Carolina ruellia i, lo

  * ACERACEAE
  * Acer pensylvanicum Striped maple, moosewood c, wr
  * Acer rubrum var. rubrum Red maple c, wr
  * Acer spicatum Mountain maple c, hi

  * ANNONACEAE
  * Asimina triloba Paw-paw o, lo

  * APIACEAE
  * Chaerophyllum tainturieri var. tainturieri Wild chervil o, lo
  * Osmorhiza claytonii Sweet cicely c, lo-mid
  * Osmorhiza longistylis Long-styled anise-root f, lo-mid
  * Taenidia integerrima Yellow pimpernel i, lo-mid
  * Thaspium barbinode Meadow-parsnip f, lo-mid
  * Thaspium trifoliatum var. aureum Yellow meadow-parsnip f, lo-mid
  * Thaspium trifoliatum var. trifoliatum Purple meadow-parsnip f, lo-mid
  * Zizia aptera Golden Alexanders o, lo-mid
  * Zizia trifoliata Three-leaved golden Alexanders o, lo-mid

  * APOCYNACEAE
  * Amsonia tabernaemontana Willow amsonia r, lo

  * AQUIFOLIACEAE
  * Ilex opaca American holly f, lo-mid

  * ARALIACEAE
  * Aralia nudicaulis Wild sarsaparilla o, mid-hi
  * Panax trifolius Dwarf ginseng s, mid

  * ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
  * Aristolochia macrophylla Dutchman’s pipe c, lo-mid
  * Asarum canadense Wild ginger c, lo-mid
  * Hexastylis arifolia Little brown jugs f, lo-mid

  * ASCLEPIADACEAE
  * Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly-weed o, lo-mid

  * ASTERACEAE
  * Achillea millefolium var. occidentalis Yarrow f, wr
  * Antennaria neglecta Field pussy toes o, lo
  * Antennaria solitaria Solitary pussy toes o, lo
  * *Centaurea cyanus Batchelor’s button r, lo
  * *Cichorium intybus Chickory o, lo
  * Coreopsis auriculata Auricled tickseed r, lo
  * Erigeron pulchellus Robin’s-plantain c, lo
  * Hieracium venosum Rattlesnake hawkweed c, lo-mid
  * *Leucanthemum vulgare Daisy c, wr
  * Pyrrhopappus carolinianus False dandelion o, lo
  * Senecio anonymus Yellow ragwort f, lo-mid
  * Senecio obovatus Spatulate-leaved ragwort i, lo
  * *Taraxacum laevigatum Red-seeded dandelion s, lo
  * *Taraxacum officinale Common dandelion c, wr

  * BERBERIDACEAE
  * Caulophyllum thalictroides Blue cohosh f, wr
  * Diphylleia cymosa Umbrella leaf f, mid-hi
  * Podophyllum peltatum May-apple c, wr

  * BIGNONIACEAE
  * Bignonia capreolata Cross-vine f, lo

  * BRASSICACEAE
  * *Alliaria petiolata Garlic mustard r, lo
  * *Arabidopsis thaliana Mouse-ear cress s, lo
  * Arabis laevigata var. laevigata Smooth rockcress f, lo-mid
  * *Barbarea verna Early watercress r, lo
  * *Barbarea vulgaris Wintercress o, lo-mid
  * *Brassica rapa Rape mustard i, lo
  * *Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd’s purse i, lo
  * Cardamine angustata Pepperwort vr, lo
  * Cardamine concatenata Cut-leaved toothwort f, lo-mid
  * Cardamine diphylla Toothwort c, lo-mid
  * *Cardamine hirsuta Hairy bittercress c, lo-mid
  * *Draba verna Whitlow grass s, lo
  * Sibara virginica Sibara i, lo

  * BUXACEAE
  * Pachysandra procumbens American pachysandra r, lo

  * CALYCANTHACEAE
  * Calycanthus floridus var. glaucus Sweetshrub c, lo-mid

  * CAPRIFOLIACEAE
  * Viburnum acerifolium Maple-leaved viburnum c, lo-mid
  * Viburnum lantanoides Hobblebush, witchhobble c, mid-hi

  * CARYOPHYLLACEAE
  * Arenaria serpyllifolia Thyme-leaved sandwort i, wr
  * *Cerastium brachypetalum Short-petalled chickweed r, lo
  * *Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare Common mouse-ear chickweed o, lo-mid
  * *Cerastium glomeratum Mouse-ear chickweed r, lo
  * Cerastium nutans Nodding chickweed o, lo
  * *Dianthus armeria Deptford pink o, lo-mid
  * Silene virginica Fire pink f, lo-mid
  * Stellaria corei Core’s chickweed o, lo-mid
  * *Stellaria media Common chickweed o, lo-mid
  * Stellaria pubera Star chickweed c, lo-mid

  * CORNACEAE
  * Cornus alternifolia Alternate-leaved dogwood f, wr
  * Cornus florida Flowering dogwood c, lo-mid

  * CRASSULACEAE
  * Sedum ternatum Wild stonecrop c, lo-mid

  * DIAPENSIACEAE
  * Galax urceolata Galax c, wr

  * ERICACEAE
  * Epigaea repens Trailing arbutus c, wr
  * Kalmia latifolia Mountain laurel c, wr
  * Leucothoe fontanesiana Dog-hobble f, wr
  * Oxydendrum arboreum Sourwood c, lo-mid
  * Rhododendron calendulaceum Flame azalea c, wr
  * Rhododendron catawbiense Catawba rhododendron c, mid-hi
  * Rhododendron maximum Rosebay rhododendron c, wr
  * Vaccinium erythrocarpum Mountain cranberry-bush o, hi

  * FABACEAE
  * Cercis canadensis Redbud o, lo
  * Cladrastis kentukea Yellowwood i, lo-mid
  * Robinia hispida var. hispida Bristly locust o, lo-mid
  * Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust c, lo-mid
  * Tephrosia virginiana Goat’s rue f, lo-mid
  * *Trifolium campestre Low hop-clover f, lo
  * Vicia caroliniana Carolina vetch f, lo-mid

  * FUMARIACEAE
  * Dicentra canadensis Squirrel corn f, wr
  * Dicentra cucullaria Dutchman’s britches f, wr
  * Dicentra eximia Bleeding heart s, lo-mid

  * GENTIANACEAE
  * Obolaria virginica Pennywort o, lo

  * GERANIACEAE
  * *Erodium cicutarium Pin-clover r, lo
  * Geranium carolinianum Carolina cranesbill o, lo-mid
  * Geranium maculatum Wild geranium f, lo-mid

  * HIPPOCASTANACEAE
  * Aesculus flava Yellow buckeye c, wr

  * HYDROPHYLLACEAE
  * Hydrophyllum virginianum var. atranthum Virginia waterleaf o, mid-hi
  * Phacelia bipinnatifida Purple phacelia o, lo-mid
  * Phacelia fimbriata Fringed phacelia o, mid-hi
  * Phacelia purshii Pursh’s purple phacelia s, lo

  * LAMIACEAE
  * *Glechoma hederacea Gill-over-the-ground f, wr
  * *Lamium amplexicaule Henbit f, lo
  * *Lamium purpureum Purple dead-nettle i, lo
  * Prunella vulgaris Heal-all f, wr

  * LAURACEAE
  * Lindera benzoin Spicebush f, lo-mid
  * Sassafras albidum Sassafras f, lo-mid

  * LOGANIACEAE
  * Spigelia marilandica Indian pink s, lo

  * MAGNOLIACEAE
  * Liriodendron tulipifera Tuliptree, yellow poplar c, lo-mid
  * Magnolia acuminata Cucumber-tree f, lo-mid
  * Magnolia fraseri Fraser magnolia c, lo-mid
  * Magnolia tripetala Umbrella magnolia o, lo-mid

  * MOLLUGINACEAE
  * *Mollugo verticillata Carpet-weed r, lo

  * MONOTROPACEAE
  * Monotropa uniflora Indian pipe c, wr
  * Monotropsis odorata Sweet pine-sap r, lo-mid

  * MORACEAE
  * Morus rubra Red mulberry o, lo

  * OLEACEAE
  * Chionanthus virginicus Fringe-tree r, lo
  * *Forsythia viridissima Forsythia o, hs
  * *Ligustrum sinense Chinese privet i, lo

  * ONAGRACEAE
  * Oenothera fruticosa ssp. fruticosa Sundrops o, lo-mid

  * OROBANCHACEAE
  * Conopholis americana Squawroot f, lo
  * Orobanche uniflora One-flowered cancer-root r, lo-mid

  * OXALIDACEAE
  * Oxalis stricta Yellow wood-sorrel f, wr
  * Oxalis violacea Violet wood-sorrel s, lo-mid

  * PAPAVERACEAE
  * Sanguinaria canadensis Bloodroot f, lo

  * PASSIFLORACEAE
  * Passiflora incarnata Passion-flower, May-pop s, lo

  * POLEMONIACEAE
  * Phlox divaricata Blue phlox o, lo-mid

  * POLYGALACEAE
  * Polygala paucifolia Fringed polygala i, lo

  * POLYGONACEAE
  * Polygonum virginianum Virginia knotweed c, lo-mid
  * *Rumex crispus Curled dock o, lo-mid

  * PORTULACACEAE
  * Claytonia caroliniana Spring-beauty f, wr
  * Claytonia virginica Narrow-leaved spring-beauty i, lo

  * PRIMULACEAE
  * Dodecatheon meadia Blazing star r, lo

  * RANUNCULACEAE
  * Actaea pachypoda White baneberry f, wr
  * Anemone quinquefolia Wood anemone f, wr
  * Aquilegia canadensis Columbine i, lo-mid
  * Delphinium tricorne Dwarf larkspur r, lo
  * Hepatica nobilis var. acuta Sharp-lobed hepatica f, lo-mid
  * Hydrastis canadensis Golden seal r, lo
  * Ranunculus abortivus Small-flowered buttercup c, lo-mid
  * Ranunculus hispidus var. hispidus Hairy buttercup o, wr
  * Ranunculus recurvatus Hooked buttercup f, wr
  * Thalictrum clavatum Brook meadowrue f, wr
  * Thalictrum dioicum Early meadowrue f, lo-mid
  * Thalictrum thalictroides Rue-anemone f, lo-mid
  * Xanthorhiza simplicissima Shrub yellowroot f, lo-mid

  * ROSACEAE
  * Amelanchier laevis Smooth shadbush, juneberry, serviceberry f, lo-mid
  * Aruncus dioicus Goat’s beard o, lo-mid
  * Crataegus macrosperma Scarlet hawthorn f, lo-mid
  * *Duchesnea indica Barren strawberry f, lo
  * Fragaria virginiana Wild strawberry f, wr
  * Geum vernum Early avens o, lo-mid
  * Porteranthus trifoliatus Bowman’s root f, lo-mid
  * Potentilla canadensis Dwarf cinquefoil f, wr
  * Prunus pensylvanica Pin cherry f, mid-hi
  * Prunus serotina Black cherry c, wr
  * Rubus flagellaris Northern dewberry o, lo
  * Rubus hispidus Swamp dewberry r, lo
  * Sorbus americana American mountain-ash o, hi

  * RUBIACEAE
  * Diodia teres Rough buttonweed o, lo
  * Diodia virginiana Virginia buttonweed o, lo
  * Galium aparine Cleavers f, lo-mid
  * Houstonia caerulea Bluets, Quaker ladies s, lo
  * Houstonia purpurea Woodland bluets f, lo-mid
  * Houstonia serpyllifolia Thyme-leaved bluets f, wr
  * *Sherardia arvensis Field madder r, lo

  * SANTALACEAE
  * Pyrularia pubera Buffalo-nut, oil-nut c, lo-mid

  * SAXIFRAGACEAE
  * Chrysosplenium americanum Golden saxifrage o, wr
  * Heuchera americana Alumroot f, lo-mid
  * Mitella diphylla Bishop’s cap f, lo-mid
  * Saxifraga careyana Carey’s saxifrage s, wr
  * Saxifraga micranthidifolia Brook lettuce c, lo-mid
  * Tiarella cordifolia var. cordifolia Foamflower c, wr

  * SCROPHULARIACEAE
  * Castilleja coccinea Indian paint-brush r, mid-hi
  * *Paulownia tomentosa Princess tree o, lo
  * Pedicularis canadensis Wood betony c, wr
  * Penstemon canescens Hairy beard-tongue o, lo-mid

  * STYRACACEAE
  * Halesia tetraptera var. monticola Silverbell c, lo-mid

  * VALERIANACEAE
  * Valerianella radiata Corn salad f, lo

  * VIOLACEAE
  * Hybanthus concolor Green violet s, lo
  * Viola blanda var. blanda Sweet white violet f, lo-mid
  * Viola canadensis var. canadensis Canadian violet f, wr
  * Viola conspersa Dog violet o, lo
  * Viola hastata Halberd-leaved violet c, lo-mid
  * Viola macloskeyi ssp. pallens Northern white violet f, mid-hi
  * Viola pedata Bird’s foot violet i, lo-mid
  * Viola pubescens var. leicarpon Smooth yellow violet f, lo-mid
  * Viola rostrata Beaked violet o, lo-mid
  * Viola rotundifolia Early yellow violet c, wr
  * Viola sororia Woolly blue violet c, lo-mid
  * Viola striata Pale violet o, lo

REFERENCES

  • Taxonomy follows Kartesz, J.T. 1993 A Synonomized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Timber Press, Portland, OR
  • White, P.S. 1982 The Flora of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: An Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants and a Review of Previous Florstic Work. Research/Resource Management Report SER-55. National Park Service. FURTHER READING Listed below are some references that are helpful for vascular plant identification in the Smokies:
    • A Field Guide to Wildflowers, The Peterson Field Guide Series—Northeastern and Northcentral North America.
    • Newcomb’s Wildflower Guide, Lawrence Newcomb.
    • Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas, Albert E. Radford, H.E. Ahles, C. R. Bell.
    • Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Blue Ridge, B. Eugene Wofford.
    • Guide to the Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of Tennessee by Eugene Wofford.

    PLANT OBSERVATIONS
    The staff of Great Smoky Mountains National Park is interested in your observations of rarer plants in the park or the discovery of species that may be new for the park. Information on uncommon plant species that is of assistance to the park staff includes:

    • exact location
    • elevation
    • number of fertile plants
    • percentage of plants in each stage of reproduction (bud, flower, fruit, etc.)
    • your familiarity with the species

    Send observations of unusual flora to:

    Inventory and Monitoring Office
    Great Smoky Mountains National Park
    1314 Cherokee Orchard Road
    Gatlinburg, TN 37738

    Remember, collection of plant material requires a permit which is usually granted only for research or educational purposes. Sketching or photography are the preferable ways to document a plant’s occurrence.

    Provided by:
    Great Smoky Mountains Association
    115 Park Headquarters Road
    Gatlinburg, TN 37738
    (865) 436-7318